Four Major Holocene Earthquakes on the Reelfoot Fault Recorded by Sackungen in the New Madrid Seismic Zone, USA

TitleFour Major Holocene Earthquakes on the Reelfoot Fault Recorded by Sackungen in the New Madrid Seismic Zone, USA
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsGold, RD, DuRoss, CB, Delano, JE, Jibson, RW, Briggs, RW, Mahan, SA, Williams, RA, D. Corbett, R
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
Pagination3105 - 3126
Date PublishedJun-03-2020

Three sequences of well‐documented, major ~M7+ earthquakes (1811–1812, ~1450, and ~900 CE) in the New Madrid seismic zone, USA, contribute significantly to seismic hazard in the region. However, it is unknown whether this <550‐year recurrence interval has been constant throughout the Holocene given limited geomorphic evidence of prior earthquakes. We extend the record of paleoearthquakes along the Reelfoot fault via investigation of ridgetop gravitational failure features, interpreted as sackungen. The sackungen occur in bluffs along the eastern margin of the Mississippi River floodplain and are concentrated near (<15 km) the southwest dipping Reelfoot reverse fault. A paleoseismic trench excavated across sackungen at the Paw Paw site exposed four packages of colluvial sediment that postdate 30‐ to 11‐ka Peoria Loess. We interpret the colluvial packages to have been deposited following episodic failure of the sackungen as a result of strong ground motions from the following sequence of earthquakes: event 4, 1640 ± 1730 BCE; event 3, 270 ± 670 CE; event 2, 1430 ± 380 CE; and event 1, 1810 ± 50 CE (2 sigma). Event timing corresponds to previously documented earthquakes and represents the longest archive of paleoearthquakes on the Reelfoot fault. If the trenched sackungen record all major Reelfoot fault earthquakes, our observations in combination with prior investigations indicate a period of quiescence from at least 11 to 4.4 ka, followed by four major seismic events culminating in the 1811–1812 CE sequence. This clustered earthquake recurrence pattern helps place bounds on seismic hazard and geodynamic models in the New Madrid seismic zone.